Using Snapshots To Manage Virtual Machines


Snapshots preserve the state and data of a virtual machine at the time you take the snapshot. Snapshots are useful when you must revert repeatedly to the same virtual machine state, but you do not want to create multiple virtual machines.

You can take multiple snapshots of a virtual machine to create restoration positions in a linear process. With multiple snapshots, you can save many positions to accommodate many kinds of work processes. Snapshots operate on individual virtual machines. Taking snapshots of multiple virtual machines, for example, taking snapshots for all members of a team, requires that you take a separate snapshot of each team member’s virtual machine.

Snapshots are useful as a short term solution for testing software with unknown or potentially harmful effects. For example, you can use a snapshot as a restoration point during a linear or iterative process, such as installing update packages, or during a branching process, such as installing different versions of a program. Using snapshots ensures that each installation begins from an identical baseline.

With snapshots, you can preserve a baseline before diverging a virtual machine in the snapshot tree.

The Snapshot Manager in the vSphere Web Client and the vSphere Client provide several operations for creating and managing virtual machine snapshots and snapshot trees. These operations let you create snapshots, restore any snapshot in the snapshot hierarchy, delete snapshots, and more. You can create extensive snapshot trees that you can use to save the virtual machine state at any specific time and restore the virtual machine state later. Each branch in a snapshot tree can have up to 32 snapshots.


  • A snapshot preserves the following information:
  • Virtual machine settings. The virtual machine directory, which includes disks that were added or changed after you took the snapshot.
  • Power state. The virtual machine can be powered on, powered off, or suspended.
  • Disk state. State of all the virtual machine’s virtual disks.
  • (Optional) Memory state. The contents of the virtual machine’s memory.

Snapshot Files

When you take a snapshot, you capture the state of the virtual machine settings and the virtual disk. If you are taking a memory snapshot, you also capture the memory state of the virtual machine. These states are saved to files that reside with the virtual machine’s base files.

Snapshot Files

A snapshot consists of files that are stored on a supported storage device. A Take Snapshot operation creates .vmdk, -delta.vmdk, .vmsd, and .vmsn files. By default, the first and all delta disks are stored with the base .vmdk file. The .vmsd and .vmsn files are stored in the virtual machine directory.

Delta disk files

A .vmdk file to which the guest operating system can write. The delta disk represents the difference between the current state of the virtual disk and the state that existed at the time that the previous snapshot was taken. When you take a snapshot, the state of the virtual disk is preserved, which prevents the guest operating system from writing to it, and a delta or child disk is created.

A delta disk has two files, including a descriptor file that is small and contains information about the virtual disk, such as geometry and child-parent relationship information, and a corresponding file that contains the raw data.


If you are looking at a datastore with the Datastore Browser in the vSphere Client, you see only one entry to represent both files.

The files that make up the delta disk are referred to as child disks or redo logs. A child disk is a sparse disk. Sparse disks use the copy-on-write mechanism, in which the virtual disk contains no data in places, until copied there by a write operation. This optimization saves storage space. A grain is the unit of measure in which the sparse disk uses the copy-on-write mechanism. Each grain is a block of sectors that contain virtual disk data. The default size is 128 sectors or 64KB.

Flat file

A -flat.vmdk file that is one of two files that comprises the base disk. The flat disk contains the raw data for the base disk. This file does not appear as a separate file in the Datastore Browser.

Database file                                                                                 

A .vmsd file that contains the virtual machine’s snapshot information and is the primary source of information for the Snapshot Manager. This file contains line entries, which define the relationships between snapshots and between child disks for each snapshot.

Memory file              

A .vmsn file that includes the active state of the virtual machine. Capturing the memory state of the virtual machine lets you revert to a turned on virtual machine state. With nonmemory snapshots, you can only revert to a turned off virtual machine state. Memory snapshots take longer to create than nonmemory snapshots. The time the ESX host takes to write the memory onto the disk is relative to the amount of memory the virtual machine is configured to use.

A Take Snapshot operation creates .vmdk, -delta.vmdk, vmsd, and vmsn files.



vmnamenumber.vmdk and vmnamenumber-delta.vmdk

Snapshot file that represents the difference between the current state of the virtual disk and the state that existed at the time the previous snapshot was taken.

The filename uses the following syntax, S1vm-000001.vmdk where S1vm is the name of the virtual machine and the six-digit number,000001, is based on the files that already exist in the directory. The number does not consider the number of disks that are attached to the virtual machine.


Database of the virtual machine’s snapshot information and the primary source of information for the Snapshot Manager.


Memory state of the virtual machine at the time you take the snapshot. The file name uses the following syntax, S1vm.snapshot1.vmsn, where S1vm is the virtual machine name, and snapshot1 is the first snapshot.


A .vmsn file is created each time you take a snapshot, regardless of the memory selection. A .vmsn file without memory is much smaller than one with memory.

 Snapshot Limitations

Snapshots can affect virtual machine performance and do not support some disk types or virtual machines configured with bus sharing. Snapshots are useful as short-term solutions for capturing point-in-time virtual machine states and are not appropriate for long-term virtual machine backups.

VMware does not support snapshots of raw disks, RDM physical mode disks, or guest operating systems that use an iSCSI initiator in the guest.

Virtual machines with independent disks must be powered off before you take a snapshot. Snapshots of powered-on or suspended virtual machines with independent disks are not supported.

Snapshots are not supported with PCI vSphere Direct Path I/O devices.

VMware does not support snapshots of virtual machines configured for bus sharing. If you require bus sharing, consider running backup software in your guest operating system as an alternative solution. If your virtual machine currently has snapshots that prevent you from configuring bus sharing, delete (consolidate) the snapshots.

Snapshots provide a point-in-time image of the disk that backup solutions can use, but Snapshots are not meant to be a robust method of backup and recovery. If the files containing a virtual machine are lost, its snapshot files are also lost. Also, large numbers of snapshots are difficult to manage, consume large amounts of disk space, and are not protected in the case of hardware failure.

Snapshots can negatively affect the performance of a virtual machine. Performance degradation is based on how long the snapshot or snapshot tree is in place, the depth of the tree, and how much the virtual machine and its guest operating system have changed from the time you took the snapshot. Also, you might see a delay in the amount of time it takes the virtual machine to power-on. Do not run production virtual machines from snapshots on a permanent basis.

How to take a snaphot:

From the vSphere web client right click the virtual machine to snapshot, select Snapshots, and Take Snapshot. Note that vCenter Server is not a requirement, snapshots are also supported through the local ESXi host web UI.

Enter a name and description for the snapshot. The contents of the virtual machines memory are included in the snapshot by default, retaining the live state of the virtual machine. If you do not capture the memory state, then the virtual machine files require quiescing, otherwise should the virtual machine be reverted to a previous state; then the disks are crash consistent. The exception to this is taking a snapshot of a powered off virtual machine, as it is not possible to capture the memory state, or quiesce the file system.

To view active snapshots locate the virtual machine in the vSphere web client and select the Snapshot tab. Snapshots are listed in order with ‘you are here’ representing the current state, at the end of the snapshot chain.

It is possible to exclude disks by changing the disk mode to independent, covered here. However please use this option with care as it may have other implications. For example if your backup software uses snapshots as part of the backup process then setting independent disks may inadvertently exclude these disks from backups.

How to revert back to a snapshot:

Select the snapshot you want to revert back to, and click the revert icon in the top left of the snapshot menu. The icon dialog reads ‘revert the VM to the state it was in when the snapshot was taken’.

Review the confirmation message. The virtual machine state and data will be reverted back to the point in time when the selected snapshot was taken. The current state of the virtual machine (changes made since the snapshot was taken) will be lost unless you have taken a further snapshot. Click Yes to continue.

If you have multiple snapshots you will see the ‘you are here’ marker move to the point in the chain you have reverted to. Snapshots taken after this point are still valid and can be reverted to if required. After you have reverted to a snapshot you are happy with you need to save, or commit, the state of the virtual machine. More on this below.


How to keep the state of the virtual machine:

When you keep the current state of the virtual machine the delta disks are merged with the base disks, committing the changes and the current state of the virtual machine. This is done by using the delete snapshot options in Snapshot Manager.

  • Delete All – deletes all snapshots from the virtual machine. This merges the delta disk(s) with the base disk(s) to save, or commit, the virtual machine data and configuration at the current point in time. If you have reverted to a snapshot you still need to delete all snapshots to start writing to the base disk again.
  • Delete – deletes individual snapshots from a chain; writing disk changes since the previous snapshot to the parent snapshot delta disk. If only a single snapshot exists then deleting this snapshot is the same as a Delete All for multiple snapshots; the VM state is committed and data is written to the base disk as normal.

Right click the virtual machine in the vSphere web client and select Snapshots, Manage Snapshots. From the All Actions menu select Delete Snapshot to delete the selected snapshot, or Delete All Snapshots. In this example we are deleting all snapshots, so click Yes to confirm.

All snapshots are now removed and the current state of the virtual machine is committed to the base disk. Any changes made from here on in are written to the base disk as normal, unless another snapshot is taken.

Snapshot Consolidation

Snapshot consolidation is useful if a Delete or Delete All operation fails; for example if a large number of snapshots exist on a virtual machine with high I/O, or if a third party tool such as backup software utilising snapshots is unable to delete redundant delta disks. Using the consolidate option removes any redundant delta disks to improve virtual machine performance and save storage space. This is done by combining the delta disks with the base disk(s) without violating a data dependency, the active state of the virtual machine does not change.

To determine if a virtual machine requires consolidation browse to the vCenter Server, cluster, or host level in the vSphere web client and click the VMs tab. Right click anywhere in the column headers and select Show/Hide Columns. Tick Needs Consolidation and click Ok.

If a virtual machine requires consolidation right click and select Snapshots, Consolidate. There is also a default alarm defined at vCenter level for virtual machine consolidation needed.

From vSphere 6 onwards the snapshot consolidation process was improved. You can read more about the specifics, and testing, in this blog post by Luca Dell’Oca.

The snapshot functions described in this post can also be managed using PowerCLI, this blog post by Anne Jan Elsinga covers the commands you’ll need.